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Żetony wypierają akcje czyli jak zrobić ICO zamiast IPO

Czym jest ICO i jak przeprowadzić ICO ?
ICO (z ang. Initial Coin Offering) to oparty o innowacyjną technologię blockchain/DLT sposób pozyskiwania finansowania przez firmy. Stwarzają one ofertę zakupu nowej własnej waluty (tokenów) do szerokiego grona odbiorców (jak IPO czy crowdfunding). Część tokenów nowej kryptowaluty jest sprzedawana sponsorom projektu w zamian za prawny środek płatniczy, jednak zazwyczaj za Bitcoiny lub Ethereum. W ten sposób pomysłodawcy startupu za sprzedaż części udziału nowej kryptowaluty otrzymują Bitcoiny lub Ethereum, następnie mogą je spieniężyć, a uzyskane środki przeznaczyć na dalszy rozwój projektu. Natomiast nowa kryptowaluta, już po zakończeniu ICO, trafia na giełdy, gdzie wspierający projekt mogą nią handlować. (definicja. za StrefaInwestorow.pl)
Jeśli projekt się powiedzie, wzrasta wartość nowej kryptowaluty. Przykładem udanego projektu ICO, który przyniósł zyski wczesnym inwestorom, jest platforma inteligentnych kontraktów o nazwie Ethereum, której waluta nazywała się Ether. W 2014 r. ogłoszono projekt Ethereum, a jego ICO przyniosło 18 mln USD w Bitcoinach lub 0,40 USD za Eter. Projekt rozpoczął się w 2015 r., a w 2016 r. osiągnął wartość Ether sięgającą 14 dolarów, a kapitalizacja przekroczyła 1 mld USD. Co ciekawe, od 2017 roku ICO pozwoliły pozyskać co najmniej 3.5x więcej kapitału dla startupów blockchain niż fundusze VC.
Jak pozyskać środki poprzez ICO ?
Obecnie ICO pozostaje w większości państw nieuregulowane lub, jak postanowiono w Chinach, wręcz zakazane. Gibraltar jako pierwsze europejskie państwo pozwala legalnie przeprowadzać ICO tworzy reżim regulacyjny związany ze przeprowadzeniem ICO i sprzedażą tokenów, aby uzyskać pozycję najlepszej jurysdykcji w tej branży. Regulacje DLT mają zastosowanie do każdego podmiotu prowadzącego działalność gospodarczą w Gibraltarze lub z Gibraltaru, który wykorzystuje technologię distributed ledger do przechowywania lub przekazywania wartości należących do innych podmiotów (otwiera ICO lub obraca krytpowalutami). Konieczne jest zatem założenie spółki na Gibraltarze.
Choć reżim ten wszedł w życie z dniem 1 stycznia 2018 r. to wcześniej Gnosis był pierwszym projektem założycieli, którzy przeprowadzili swoje ICO z Gibraltaru. Była to pierwsza sprzedaż tokena na Gibraltarze już w kwietniu 2017.  Ostatnio HelloBloom zamknął swoją sprzedaż 1 stycznia 2018  i pozyskał około 45 milionów dolarów.
Ponadto Gibraltarska Komisja Usług Finansowych („GFSC”) poinformowała, że podczas gdy sprzedaż tokenów nie będzie sama w sobie objęta zakresem nowych ram DLT określonych powyżej, będą one nadal monitorować wykorzystanie tokenów jako środka pozyskiwania finansowania. W związku z tym oczekuje się, że z 2018 r. zostaną wprowadzone uzupełniające przepisy dotyczące promocji i sprzedaży tokenów, dostosowane do nowych ram DLT oraz tworzenia ICO na Gibraltarze.
Masz pytania o ICO na Gibraltarze? Napisz do nas

Maciej Oniszczuk

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