Biznes w Polsce

Jak odzyskać środki z obligacji. 3 ścieżki dla inwestora

Spółka GetBack SA to kolejny w ostatnim czasie emitent obligacji, którego inwestorzy zwracają się do nas z prośbą o pomoc w odzyskaniu zainwestowanych środków. Jak przebiega ten proces, od momentu emitent nie reguluje już swoich zobowiązań?
# 1 Droga postępowania cywilnego
Najprostsza forma odzyskania środków, niemniej mocno ograniczona w czasie, jeśli dłużnik złoży wniosek na drodze #2. Co istotne, wierzyciel z obligacji ma prawo skorzystać z tzw. postępowania nakazowego, które jest tańsze i szybsze niż zwykły proces. Wraz z wydaniem nakazu możliwe jest skierowanie sprawy do komornika celem zabezpieczenia majątku, o ile taki jeszcze pozostał. W ramach sprawy cywilnej bardzo istotne jest jakie zabezpieczenia na rzecz inwestora ustanowił dłużnik.
# 2 Droga postępowania upadłościowego lub restrukturyzacyjnego
Wprowadzone w 2015 roku Prawo Restrukturyzacyjne dało dłużnikom szereg nowych opcji do wyboru w razie problemów z niewypłacalnością. Łączy je ucieczka przed wierzycielami pod ochronę sądu, co oznacza zazwyczaj brak możliwości prowadzenia spraw sądowych lub komorniczych przeciwko spółce. W pierwszej kolejności często emitenci szukają możliwości zawarcia tzw. układu z wierzycielami. Często w przypadku obligacji układ pozwala na ich zamianę na akcje spółki lub tzw. rolowanie i odroczenie w czasie. Jeśli do układu nie dojdzie, zazwyczaj spółka wchodzi w tryb upadłości likwidacyjnej. Niestety wierzyciele z obligacji będą wtedy zaspokajani na końcu, o ile wcześniej nie wyczerpie się majątek.
# 3 Droga postępowania karnego
Najbardziej drastyczna forma, która wchodzi w grę jeśli oferowanie na sprzedaż obligacji i późniejsze kłopoty firmy mogą stanowić celowe działanie o cechach przestępstwa. Najczęściej będzie to oszustwo z art. 286 k.k. lub czyn z ustawy o obligacjach. W świetle art. 38 ust. 1 tej ustawy, każdy, kto dokonuje emisji obligacji, nie będąc do tego uprawnionym lub przy emisji nie zachowuje warunków określonych w ustawie, podlega grzywnie do 5 mln zł i jednocześnie karze pozbawienia wolności od 6 miesięcy do 5 lat.
W takim przypadku prokurator ma prawo zabezpieczyć majątek emitenta obligacji lub innych osób, aby pokryć szkody pokrzywdzonych przestępstwem. Co istotne, ma on możliwość sięgać dalej niż komornik czy syndyk szukając majątku. Przykładowo w sprawie PCZ SA prokurator zabezpieczył majątek na ok. 60 mln złotych.
Masz pytania na temat odzyskania środków z obligacji? Napisz do nas:
office (at) oniszczuk.com

Maciej Oniszczuk

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