Biznes za granicą

Dwie strony medalu szwajcarskiej poufności

Obecnie zakres poufności oferowana przez szwajcarski system różni się diametralnie na poziomie właścicieli spółki i na poziomie posiadacza konta bankowego.
Szwajcarski kodeks handlowy zezwala na prowadzenie działalności gospodarcze zarówno obywatelom tego państwa jak i cudzoziemcom. Najbardziej rozpowszechnioną formą prowadzenia działalności gospodarczej w Szwajcarii przez inwestorów zagranicznych są spółki kapitałowe, Aktiengesellschaft (AG) będące odpowiednikiem polskiej spółki akcyjnej oraz Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH) stanowiące odpowiednik polskiej spółki z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością. Minimalny kapitał zakładowy w spółce GmbH wynosi 20.000 CHF, a w spółce AG 100.000 CHF. Prawo zezwala również na tworzenie oddziałów przedsiębiorstw zagranicznych.
Znamiennym jest fakt, że w Szwajcarii większym zainteresowaniem cieszą się spółki typu AG nad spółkami typu GmbH. Właśnie spółki AG zapewniają pełną anonimowość dla właścicieli z uwagi na fakt, że nie są oni widoczni w rejestrze przedsiębiorców – właściciele nie mają obowiązku przedkładania dokumentów potwierdzających ich tożsamość. Jeśli zatem przy zawiązaniu spółki działa lokalny agent, który potem sprzeda akcje na okaziciela faktycznym właścicielom, pozostaną oni anonimowi. Jest to ciekawa alternatywa dla spółek oferujących tzw. nominowanych udziałowców.
Odmiennie sytuacja przedstawia się w przypadku udziałowców spółek GmbH, którzy nie tylko zobowiązani są do przedłożenia kopii paszportów, ale także do ujawnienia i zgłoszenia do rejestru przedsiębiorców danych personalnych (w tym imion i nazwisk lub nazw, miejsca zamieszkania lub siedziby), a także wartości wniesionego przez nich majątku i objętych udziałów. Większe zainteresowanie spółkami typu AG wynika także z faktu, że zbycie akcji jest łatwiejsze niż zbycie udziałów. Jednakże zaletą spółek typu GmbH są niższe koszty założenia.
Każda spółka szwajcarska musi posiadać co najmniej jednego udziałowca/akcjonariusza oraz jednego Członka Zarządu z zastrzeżeniem, iż co najmniej jeden Członek Zarządu będzie rezydentem Szwajcarii. Ten członek Zarządu jest osobiście odpowiedzialny za właściwe i prawidłowe zarządzanie Spółką.
W procesie powstawania Spółki dane oraz dokumenty (forma prawna, bank, cel przeznaczenia, dyrektorzy) muszą zostać szczegółowo zgromadzone oraz sprawdzone. Następnie kapitał początkowy musi zostać wpłacony na konto banku szwajcarskiego. Po tej płatności rejestracji dokonuje szwajcarski notariusz i on również dokona wpisu Spółki do rejestru handlowego. Jeśli proces kompletowania dokumentów oraz danych niezbędnych do rejestracji Spółki przebiega bez zakłóceń, Spółka może zostać utworzona nawet w terminie do dwóch tygodni. Osobista obecność przy zakładaniu Spółki w Szwajcarii nie jest konieczna, ale zalecana. Obowiązek taki może powstać, jeśli wymaga tego bank przy otwieraniu konta, a także gdy przedsiębiorca chce posiadać uprawnienia do reprezentowania spółki oraz składania podpisów w jej imieniu (chyba że w tym zakresie uzyska on Apostille). Każda spółka w Szwajcarii jest zobowiązana do uiszczania podatku dochodowego. Zobowiązania z tytułu podatku mieszczą się w przedziale od 9% do 35% i są zależne nie tylko od miejsca siedziby, ale także od rodzaju przyjętego modelu biznesowego.
Przechodząc do tajemnicy bankowej należy podkreślić, że obecnie anonimowość klientów została mocno ograniczona i banki wymagają szczegółowych informacji pozwalających na dokładne przeanalizowanie źródeł oraz sposobów uzyskania zgromadzonych środków. Poza tym bank może chcieć poznać osobiście rzeczywistych właścicieli spółki. Obecnie banki rzadko przyjmują depozyty gotówkowe większe niż 25.000 CHF i to nie częściej niż raz do roku, a co do polskich rezydentów wprowadzono formularze automatycznej wymiany informacji z polskimi władzami skarbowymi. W konsekwencji informacje o faktycznym właścicielu konta szybko dotrą do odpowiednich organów. Co więcej, w skutek realizacji umowy FACTA, europejskie podmioty zobowiązane są do przekazywania do USA informacji o aktywności rezydentów USA w Europie, jednak nie ma tutaj symetrycznych reguł dotyczących aktywności europejczyków w USA . Stąd konto bankowe w stanie Wyoming jest obecnie bardziej poufne niż skrytka w Zurychu.

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