Biznes za granicą

Czy w 2019 roku firma w Czechach opłaca się bardziej niż kiedykolwiek?

W drugiej połowie 2018 roku zanotowaliśmy znaczny wzrost zainteresowania przez polskich przedsiębiorców tematyką zakładania spółek „SRO” (odpowiednik polskiej „spółki z o.o.”) w Czechach. Prawdopodobnie jest to konsekwencją wprowadzenia przez ustawodawcę do polskiego porządku prawnego szeregu zmian w zakresie prawa podatkowego. W ich świetle zarejestrowanie firmy w formie spółki za południową granicą może być bardziej opłacalne niż kiedykolwiek.

Wiedza, doświadczenie, praktyka. Sprawdź też kursy online z certyfikatem Induni x Oniszczuk&Associates:
1. Budowanie krajowych i międzynarodowych struktur spółkowych
2. Międzynarodowa optymalizacja ryzyka i ochrona majątku. Lista rajów podatkowych
3. Dlaczego tradycyjna optymalizacja podatkowa już nie działa?

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Nieprzypadkowo na polskich ulicach coraz więcej luksusowych aut ma tablice z flagą Republiki Czeskiej. Od 1 stycznia 2019 roku w Polsce zmieniły się zasady opodatkowania leasingu, nabycia i używania samochodów osobowych w firmach. Restrykcje na gruncie podatku VAT rozszerzono na podatek dochodowy i wprowadzono m. in. limity przy leasingu operacyjnym pojazdów osobowych czy zmiany przy rozliczeniu aut osobowych użytkowanych firmowo i prywatnie.
Całkowicie odmiennie kształtuje się sytuacja przy rozliczaniu aut i pojazdów firmowych w Czechach, bowiem można odpisać całkowity koszt zakupu pojazdów, kosztów paliwa i napraw. Kolejnym atutem założenia spółki za południową granicą jest brak obowiązku zapłaty podatku akcyzowego przy zakupie pojazdu, ponieważ taki podatek w Czechach nie istnieje. Tymczasem w Polsce akcyza dla pojazdów z silnikiem do 2000 centymetrów sześciennych wynosi 3,1 % od ceny na umowie/fakturze, natomiast dla pojazdów powyżej 2000 centymetrów sześciennych podatek wzrasta już do 18,6 %. W konsekwencji zakup pojazdów (szczególnie luksusowych) i ich rejestracja w Czechach jest znacznie bardzie opłacalna niż w Polsce: jeśli zatem wartość pojazdu to pół miliona zł, w Czechach jego cena wyniesie 350 tys. zł, czyli 150 tys. zł tytułem VAT i akcyzy mniej niż w Polsce. Korzyści jest jeszcze więcej gdyż spółka SRO może bez limitu odliczać VAT ze wszystkich kosztów związanych z używaniem samochodu, np. z paliwa, napraw itd.
W pierwszej kolejności warto podkreślić, że rejestracja spółki w Czechach jest tańsza, zdecydowanie mniej sformalizowana niż w Polsce, a cały proces można zakończyć w ciągu 2 tygodni. Znacznym ułatwieniem jest także fakt, że minimalna kwota kapitału zakładowego wynosi 1 CZK. Kolejnym krokiem jest otwarcie rachunku bankowego i zarejestrowanie spółki do VAT. Dla osób, które chcą pominąć ww. etapy i zaoszczędzić czas najlepszą alternatywą jest zakup udziałów w istniejącej już spółce SRO. Dodatkowym atutem jest to, że większość istniejących już spółek posiada rejestrację do VAT, co pozwala zaoszczędzić czasem kilka miesięcy. Nowy nabywca wchodzi w ogół praw i obowiązków zbywcy. Siedzibą może być na początku biuro wirtualne, chociaż z czasem warto pomyśleć o faktycznej siedzibie.
Przy podjęciu decyzji o rejestracji spółki w Czechach należy także pamiętać, że podobnie jak w Polsce niektóre rodzaje działalności podlegają reglamentacji i wymagają dodatkowych licencji lub pozwoleń, co w konsekwencji może spowodować wydłużenie całego procesu jej założenia. Istnieją jednak pewne branże w których uzyskanie licencji jest dużo łatwiejsze niż w Polsce. Do jednej z nich należy zaliczyć spedycję. Zgodnie z obowiązującymi w Polsce przepisami, aby prowadzić firmę spedycyjną trzeba posiadać licencję, którą można uzyskać jedynie w przypadku posiadania certyfikatu kompetencji zawodowych. Certyfikat kompetencji zawodowych można uzyskać poprzez zaliczenie egzaminu, który składa z zagadnień m.in. prawa pracy, prawa handlowego, prawa finansowego, bezpieczeństwa w ruchu drogowym czy wymagań technicznych pojazdów. Ponadto, kolejnym ograniczeniem jest także posiadanie przez przedsiębiorcę zabezpieczenia finansowego, o którym mowa w ustawie o transporcie drogowym z dnia 6 września 2001 r. Takie wymogi nie obowiązują przy założeniu spółki na terenie Czech, co znacznie ułatwia osobowym zainteresowanym prowadzeniem takiej działalności wejście na rynek.
Wprowadzenie z początkiem roku kolejnych zmian (ograniczeń) do polskiego porządku prawnego oraz powyższe fakty pokazują z jakich przyczyn zakładanie spółek w Czechach staje się coraz bardziej popularne i korzystne dla przedsiębiorców.
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